1821 American map showing how they viewed different parts of the world to be either savage, barbarous, civilized or enlightened

Define pretty modern. In the early 19th century(eg. the date of this map) non-white people where seen as less intiligent. 'Lower' Europeans were sometimes just part of this non-white/non-aryan group. I said sometimes because racial theory is mostly very arbitray anyways, hard to have a consensus when the thing you research doesn't exist. The one concensus though, that still holds true today in this pseudoscience, is if you're skin is black you are less civilized/smart/intelligent.

This is partly how slave traders justified trading slaves until the end of the 19th century when it became the main reason, also for the big colonizers. The Netherlands didn't use the Indonesians for profit, they thought them christian values and civilization since induviduals don't exist and all indonesians were lesser and/or worthless savages. That was back then the more progressive side of politics, the other political side didn't believe the savages could change. It is sad to see that a similair form of racial pseudoscience is on the rise, not only in the Western world but also in places like China.

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