Ok. Was gonna answer this wall of text with a wall of text. Then I realized that I was on mobile, and walls of text are hard on mobile.
First, expect to feel overwhelmed, for a few months at the least. No matter how much you learn, there's more to learn. When you've learned it all, CCP will change things. It's what they do.
You're on the right path in regards to finding "that thing". Try everything. Repeatedly. You'll eventually find something(s) that resonate well with you, and that'll become your thing.
Speak up in Dojo. Everyone is nice.
In regards to PvP, and having "a better chance than a paper puppy in hell" (totally stealing that, btw), the best way to learn is to do. I'll happily tutor you in D-scanfu, and show you the joys of solo-pvp (actually been kinda wanting to teach a Dojo class on Piracy).
Pick your favorite combat frig. Doesn't matter which, just pick the one you like the best, fit it up, go get blown up. Repeat that a while. You'll stop being blown up as much. Full disclosure, doing this is null is harder than in low. Bubbles put a damper on it something fierce. That said, solo'ing around in an Inty is damned fun, and bubble-proof.
Yes, you can explore null in a Heron. It's not particularly difficult. That being said, if you're out exploring, and find that "mother load", considering docking up ASAP (be it in low, or if you're in Catch, a friendly station), and having someone move it, rather than run the risk of a bubble camp ruining your day. Once you get into a covops, that risk is less (cloaks ftw). Astero works too, but can be pricey in the beginning.
As for ratting. Ratting in anoms can be a bit difficult, first starting out. Dojo has a free ratting Vexor program that I recommend. Once you've got the skills, it'll do the trick for lower end anoms. You start getting the skills down, moving up to a Vexor Navy will do wonders, but don't try to jump straight there.
Overall, I think you're on the right track, and well on your way to being a Brave not-so-Newbie. Welcome to the club. This place lured me back to the game after 4 years of retirement, and I've loved every second of it so far.
Gimme a yell in game if you need anything. Mal Asha. I'm always happy to help, tutor, and take you out to get blown up gloriously.