How did new biochemical pathways, which involve multiple enzymes working together in sequence, originate?
I couldn't find a whole lot on the person they quoted, nor his actual quote... when I googled it, it just populated with a bunch of religious websites and the 15-question one. So I have no idea of the legitimacy of the quote or if they misquoted or if it was accurate. I will give you the benefit of the doubt. The mechanics such as magnets and wheels... Those are properties of physics. They have nothing to do with evolution. Iron has always been iron. Electricity has always been electricity. Physics doesn't change, they are laws of the universe they are unbound by nature, but at the same merit are the perfect representation of logic and nature.
Cells adapt to survive, and at the beginning they adapted to just eat more, there was no special voodoo sequences or motors. They devoured other cells and grew bigger until they separated. Complex Enzymes that materialized into actual THINGS happened after many a millions of years. Physics makes up many things actually, it makes up everything. So the ATP that they are talking about is a property of physics at work. That natural law of how things form and connect and utilize charges of their protons and electrons and the even smaller bits of the atoms is what drives these "nano-machines". The "motor" of the ATP is driven by electrons, which hold a negative current. Negative current could repulse a positive proton in the ATP cell nano-machine thing that they showed, and spins that motor, the ADP and the phosphate is just in the air, it's a matter of time and luck that it enters that "nano-mechanism"
This super complicated and such a tiny mechanism is deemed important because it produces what we need to do things. But such grand scale things that have nothing to do with our survival (according to a creationist) such as star-clouds which devour the particles of stars and re-form them in the universe. That is what we are made up of, carbon, oxygen, hydrogen etc that is all star stuff. If you look at what stars are made up of, they are made up of these particles. So why does God need to invent a super special star-cloudy process if he just "created" us? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fJcRdD2GqnE (The end is kinda where it's explained, the video itself is pretty cool) :)
Living things look like they were designed, so how do evolutionists know that they were not designed?
Richard Dawkins wrote, “biology is the study of complicated things that have the appearance of having been designed with a purpose.”
The Blind Watchmaker: Why the Evidence of Evolution Reveals a Universe without Design
As the book title probably explains... Richard isn't saying that Biology is a complicated thing that looks designed by someone, counter to that he is saying that biology is things evolving into the way they are and evolution has driven that design.
How did multi-cellular life originate?
Cells don't think. They do. Eat eat eat eat, split, eat eat eat eat, split, eat eat you get the picture, again, physics and chemistry connects this. The same ATP function explained above explains the "learning" part of everything. If you think about brains, they are just neurons firing
How did sex originate?
When a daddy loves a mommy... No but honestly, in cellular instances, small cells are male and large cells are female. The large cells give up A LOT to reproduce and it hurts their survivability, but their genes go on (they don't know this obviously) but the survival is still there. For example, when a cell breaks off of a larger cluster of cells... it is still "that" cell. So when a "female" breaks off, it creates a "child". At the cellular level everything was female, and it just consumed, when it grew too big it broke off, those children also became big. Over time there were lots of cells, and they grouped via chemistry and physics.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fgQLyqWaCbA This explains 7 and 8. The whole concept of sex isn't explained in this video... but sex itself "feels good" it's why we do it. If it didn't feel good, our whole existence would have been wiped out a long time ago because of the amount of stress our body goes through when performing sex. As for young cell sex, it was more "forced" by what is explained in the video as chemistry and chemical reactions.
Why are the (expected) countless millions of transitional fossils missing?
I'm sorry, but it costs money to dig up things, and it also relies on specific events for the bones of dead things to become fossils. If we dug up the entire Earth and looked everywhere for fossils I'm sure we'd find them. But in the mean time I linked a great list of them that generally explains a bit of transitions.
How do ‘living fossils’ remain unchanged over supposed hundreds of millions of years,
The horseshoe crab is one of thousands of organisms living today that show little change from their ‘deep time’ fossils. In the supposed ‘200 million’ years that the horseshoe crab has remained unchanged (no evolution), virtually all reptiles, dinosaurs, birds, mammals and flowering plants have supposedly evolved.
Well I mean if something doesn't have to evolve or if there is no ENGINE in the car, then it won't. I am sure the horseshoe crabs of today are different than the horseshoe crabs of 200 million years ago, if even just slight enough to adapt to any differences.
How did blind chemistry create mind/ intelligence, meaning, altruism and morality?
Well blind chemistry didn't create meaning or morality. There is no morality between two dinosaurs eating each other in a fight. Morality is something that social animals such as humans "created" but otherwise developed through experience. A pack of primates survives longer than a single primate. So it's best to keep everyone alive. It's a family matter... We don't kill each other because it helps ME if YOU are alive. Minds and Intelligence comes from Neurons in our brains. That is our unique evolutionary trait. We strong upright bodies and brains that allowed us to recognize patterns. Through these patterns we developed speech and star-patterns for survival, we learned that when certain arrangement of stars occurred, we could hunt certain animals and that it would be warm or super cold (winter stars compared to summer stars).
The ability to recognize patterns also allowed us to reproduce sounds enough so that our offspring quickly caught on, that's how language developed.
So take speech, + pattern recognition + big brains + strong upright bodies = humans who teach their offspring how to survive by following the patterns that the adults have already learned.
Why is evolutionary ‘just-so’ story-telling tolerated?
Science "Just-So" is just as "Just-So" as creation. If God can "always be" then cells and whatever caused the big bang can "always be".
The opinion that some men are virile and just want to bang everything, and other men are protectors is dumb. Men are capable of being virile and protect their women... Crows are an example of another animal that starts a family and stays as a family. Male primates grow big and buff or super intelligent or super fast to impress female primates, they then use that advantage to fend off other males. This is because the female can produce multiple off-spring. If the female could only ever produce one off-spring per life, then you would see males banging and moving on much more frequently. But since females don't usually have a cap on their child-bearing skills, the amount of children they can produce in a life-time is pretty limited. Also the children they produce grow up, and by time they are old enough to things on their own, the males are generally too old to keep up with the younger crowd. THUS their silly sexually driven theory doesn't really make sense.
Where are the scientific breakthroughs due to evolution?
Where are the scientific breakthroughs due to God?
Saying that a particular field of study needs evolution to uphold it's legitimacy is an odd statement. I took robotics, the origin of the universe and the microbiology and evolution have nothing to do with what I learned. Does me learning about the theory of evolution hinder my education of robotics? No... but learning things always helps. I know for a fact that if I learned about Jesus at SAIT and that was the premise behind everything I learned I would have learned a lot less.
Science involves experimenting to figure out how things work; how they operate. Why is evolution, a theory about history, taught as if it is the same as this operational science?
Evolution is a theory, just like Gravity. But before you go and jump off a building, let me explain what a theory is.
A theory provides an explanatory framework for some observation, and from the assumptions of the explanation follows a number of possible hypotheses that can be tested in order to provide support for, or challenge a theory.
So with this in mind, it isn't a theory like some guy in a room said "well hey you know, this makes sense let's put it on the kids homework assignment". No instead many people have devoted their lives observing what happened in history and apply a theory that fits. They then use this same theory against current day things to see if it also fits. Survival of the fittest, natural selection, etc the engines that drive evolution are very present and very observational in real time.
You can't observe gravity, but you can throw a ball off a building and watch it fall, you have no idea WHAT that is, you just know that gravity explains it. We don't know what gravity is, we don't know what evolution is. But we have the tools to observe it. You throw balls off roofs, I force certain people up mountains and down hills.