You are on the right track, good on you for thinking about all this now rather than later.
My two-cent advice to you would be to try to move to the UK now rather than later. It would be a good opportunity for you to get acclimated to living/studying conditions there while doing a bachelor's and face the struggles of 1st-year uni not alone but with fellow young British people. This would give you such a boost and such an advantage when going for your masters.
Also, you are right about lecturers in Syria. The good thing about the UK is transparency and fairness in marking, also let's not kid with their amazing courses and teaching methods. You would also be introduced to new/latest software and programs to use in your bachelor's there so you would face fewer struggles when transitioning into your masters.
In regards to your other questions about the recognizability of Syrian degrees in other countries, I can't speak for all, but I've been living in Australia for ~12 years and I've seen all my relatives who have studied electrical engineering/med/dentistry / civil engineering be rejected because their degrees are not recognised here. It really was very disheartening for them. Their career opportunities have been limited to subterranean levels and it aches me when we discuss this during family gatherings.
Why not move now while you are young and have an agile absorbant brain :) since you are thinking of moving anyway later on? You could even start your first year at Damascus University and start the transition to a British Bachelor's while doing some units in Syria.
Goodluck with everything!