In 132 CE, the Jews revolted against the Roman Empire in an event now known as the Jewish Revolt. In response, Emperor Hadrian brought with him 13 legions, destroyed 50+ towns and 900+ villages, massacred every Jew and burned down every Jewish temple in sight, virtually erasing Judea off the map and renaming the region Syria-Palestine and building 2 big-ass statues of Jupiter and himself.
The name “Palestine” was chosen because it comes from the Philistines, an ancient enemy of the Jews mentioned in the Bible. Modern-day Palestinians however aren’t related to the Philistines, they descend from the Arabs who conquered the land in 700 CE. The Philistines were already long dead by the time the Jewish Revolt broke out.
For roughly 1,800 years, the Jews were heavily persecuted and were forbidden to return to their homeland. It wasn’t until the late 19/early 20th Century that Jews would stop being persecuted and would be finally allowed to return to their homeland. However, they found their homeland inhabited by Muslim Arabs. This is where the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict would begin.