How exactly do quantum computers simulate molecular/particle interactions better than classical computers?

Classical computers do one thing at a time, multiplied by the number of processers and number of logical cores.

No matter how fast they get, there are limits to what they can do. When dealing with extremely large sets of data or possibilities they can still wind up seeming slow.

Quantum computers work in a fundamentally different way. The y can multiple possibilities at once. This makes them able to be safer than classical computers.

For example, imagine you had to find all the possible 1024 byte strings of characters that satisfy some constraints.

Classical computers would have to go through them one by one, (multipeld by processor and core count) until it had checked them all.

Quantum computers don;t have to do this. they can consider multiple states at the same time; the number of states they can simultaneously consider depends on the particular implementation of the computer. usually the more entangled elements it has (eg qubits) the more states it can consider at one.

This means a quantum computer can be faster than a classical one, and for some problems orders of magnitudes faster (and as quantum computers evolve, their performance lead increases.)

it all comes down to this: Classical computers do things one at a time, quantum computers can do multiple things at the same time.

/r/askscience Thread