welcome to lb! you've already gotten some really good advice, so i'll echo bit of it and add:
as others have said, when it comes to bikable distance to campus, east long beach (or lakewood, though i wouldn't recommend it because you're young and would find it boring - plus, it's easy to move too far in the wrong direction and end up in a REALLY bad neighborhood - if the rent seems low, there's your cue) is going to be your ticket. el dorado park area. los altos. not a lot of apartments in those areas, though, unfortunately.
although you've gotten bixby knolls recommendations, a lack of familiarity with the area could end you up in a sketchy neighborhood as with lakewood (which abruptly flows into north long beach - the latter of which should be avoided at all costs).
for a decent studio in a decent neighborhood you're looking at $800 min unless you find a savvy local who can help you draw some distinctions. (when you're looking, you could probably post block numbers and street names here for us to yay or nay.) if you find a one bedroom for less than $1000 a month, be wary. good ones are out there at that price point, but... be wary.
don't rent anything without doing a drive (or bike)-by on a weekend evening to see what's doing.
craigslist (for rentals) is useful, but walking around is even more so. as has been mentioned, furnished apartments are a rarity.
long beach is public transportation and bike friendly, moreso than most other areas in socal, so you shouldn't have a problem there. but bear in mind your campus is relatively far from the action, so the closer you live to campus the further you'll be from the fun stuff. as has been mentioned, lakewood is extremely suburban. a mall, some chain restaurants, and that's about it. though, agreeable and friendly, with wide tree-lined boulevards. if you prefer to have a quieter place to retire to, lakewood will be a good choice to call your home base - you can always bus or uber it to the cool shit, in the evenings.
when you want a pint: if you're into the college crowd and pop/hiphop, 2nd st is your jam. otherwise, look on 4th street and broadway for bars / wine bars / food. i can give you a long list of cool joints. if shannon's is all you know, you're going to be pleasantly surprised.
don't be afraid of 7th street. everyone (outside lb) is - there's no reason to be.
as has been mentioned, get a really good bike lock, and go a step further and don't get a really good bike. trust. even if you're in a good neighborhood. TRUST.
parking in this town sucks, but you'll get used to it. not relevant unless you give in and get a car, but worth noting in the event you do.
with the exception of north lb (avoid!) and west of downtown, lb is much safer than its reputation suggests.
there's not a lot of nightlife here if nightclubs are your bag (make a friend with a car so you can go to LA for that), but otherwise you'll rarely find the need to leave. especially if you like a good dive bar, or a good taco, or good sushi.
with respect to food, everything from the usual american chains (more toward your campus' side of town) to little indie joints specializing in every cuisine at every price point imaginable are at your disposal.
personally speaking, if i were 22 and could afford it, i'd look in the belmont heights area. otherwise, i'd look at 4th or 7th between ximeno and alamitos. any of these would be a healthy bike ride to campus, but the bus system would suffice if need be.
btw, there's a great little dive bar near your campus called thirsty isle. it's small and shitty and cheap. beer only. atmosphere isn't exciting, but if you end up living over there, it's suitable to pop into after class. there's also a great chinese joint across the way called lv chinese seafood. it looks like nothing from the outside, but the food is amazing.
etc., etc. i love this town. i could go on and on.