Edwin Meese III and Matthew Spalding, “The Principles of Immigration,” Heritage Foundation Backgrounder No. 1807, October 19, 2004. See also Edwin Meese III and Matthew Spalding, “Where We Stand: Essential Requirements for Immigration Reform,” Heritage Foundation Backgrounder No. 2034, May 10, 2007, and Robert Rector, “Amnesty and Continued Low-Skill Immigration Will Substantially Raise Welfare Costs and Poverty,” Heritage Foundation Backgrounder No. 1936, May 16, 2006, p. 13.
 A temporary guest worker program must be limited in scope and limited in duration; it must not be a pathway to legal permanent residence and citizenship. Guest workers should not bring their families to the U.S., since the inclusion of families would greatly increase costs to U.S. taxpayers, and to the extent permitted by the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution, the policy of birthright citizenship should not apply to children born to guest workers temporarily in the U.S. Participants should not be entitled to U.S. welfare and should not become eligible for future Social Security and Medicare benefits; employers should be required to cover medical costs of workers while they are in the U.S. Edwin Meese III and Matthew Spalding, “Permanent Principles and Temporary Workers,” Heritage Foundation Backgrounder No.1911, March 1, 2006.
 Rector, “Amnesty and Continued Low-Skill Immigration Will Substantially Raise Welfare Costs and Poverty”; Robert Rector, “Importing Poverty: Immigration and Poverty in the United States,” Heritage Foundation Special Report No. 9, October, 25, 2006, p. 29.
 Chapter 6 of The New Americans provides a single-year analysis of the fiscal costs of immigration that employs much of the same methodology used in the present Heritage Foundation analysis.
 For example, in its analysis of immigration costs in California, the National Research Council asserts, “Public services provided at the state level to California households include Medi-Cal health care coverage and AFDC and SSI income transfers, state aid for K–12 education, state support for higher education, state police, corrections, and justice, public works, government administration, transportation, environment and recreation, and state assistance to local governments. Services provided by local governments include local spending on K–12 education, community colleges, police and fire protection, transportation, libraries, public health, public works, general low-income assistance, and general government administration.” The study “assumes [that] each of these services is a private good requiring a proportional increase in spending to protect services for native residents.” National Research Council, The New Americans, p. 278. Accordingly, the study assigns the cost of these services to immigrant households either according to their direct use of the benefit (based, like the Heritage study, on reported receipt in CPS data) or according to their share in the population.
 The exception to this principle is that the Census imputes certain values into the CPS data based on the family’s reported income; these include the Earned Income Tax Credit, the Additional Child Tax Credit, federal and state income tax payments, FICA taxes, and school lunch subsidies. The Census also imputes the value of Medicare and Medicaid benefits to households that report enrollment in those programs.
 U.S. Office of Management and Budget, Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2013: Historical Tables, http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/budget/Historicals (accessed April 5, 2013).
 U.S. Office of Management and Budget, Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2012: Analytical Perspectives, p. 220, Table 15.5, http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/BUDGET-2012-PER/pdf/BUDGET-2012-PER.pdf (accessed April 5, 2013).
 Jeffrey L. Barnett and Phillip M. Vidal, “State and Local Government Finances Summary: 2010,” U.S. Census Bureau, September 2012, Appendix, p. 6, Table A-1, http://www2.census.gov/govs/estimate/summary_report.pdf (accessed April 5, 2013).
 U.S. Census Bureau, Federal, State, and Local Governments: 1992 Government Finance and Employment Classification Manual, http://ftp2.census.gov/govs/class/classfull.pdf (accessed April 24, 2013).
 The analysis used an electronic version of the March 2011 CPS data from the National Bureau of Economic Research. See National Bureau of Economic Research, “NBER CPS Supplements,” www.nber.org/data/cps.html (accessed April 23, 2013).
 The analysis used an electronic version of the October 2010 CPS data from the National Bureau of Economic Research. See ibid.
 U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Consumer Expenditure Survey 2010, http://www.bls.gov/cex/pumd_2010.htm (accessed April 8, 2013).
 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services, Office of the Actuary, 2010 Actuarial Report on the Financial Outlook for Medicaid, December 2010, http://www.cms.gov/Research-Statistics-Data-and-Systems/Research/ActuarialStudies/Downloads/MedicaidReport2010.pdf (accessed April 24, 2013).
 Congressional Research Service, “Cash and Noncash Benefits for Persons with Limited Income: Eligibility Rules, Recipient and Expenditure Data, FY 2002–FY 2004.”
 U.S. Office of Management and Budget, Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2012: Appendix, http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/omb/budget/fy2012/assets/appendix.pdf (accessed April 8, 2013). See also Rector, “Examining the Means-tested Welfare State: 79 Programs and $927 Billion in Annual Spending.”
 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, “Medicare & Medicaid Statistical Supplement,” Medicaid Tables 14.1–14.27, 2010 Edition, http://www.cms.gov/Research-Statistics-Data-and-Systems/Statistics-Trends-and-Reports/MedicareMedicaidStatSupp/2010.html (accessed April 5, 2013). This survey covers 2003.
 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, “Medicare & Medicaid Statistical Supplement,” 2011 Edition, http://www.cms.gov/Research-Statistics-Data-and-Systems/Statistics-Trends-and-Reports/MedicareMedicaidStatSupp/2011.html (accessed April 23, 2013).
 Duke University and National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Aging, National Long-Term Care Survey, 1999 Public Use Data Files National Long-Term Care Study (NLTCS), 1999 public use data set, http://www.icpsr.umich.edu/icpsrweb/NACDA/studies/09681 (accessed April 5, 2013). Produced and distributed by the Duke University Center for Demographic Studies with funding from the National Institute on Aging under Grant No. U01-AG007198. The NLTCS is a nationally representative sample of individuals aged 65 years and older in long-term care facilities.
 Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, 2010 Survey of Consumer Finances, http://www.federalreserve.gov/econresdata/scf/scf_2010.htm (accessed April 8, 2013).
 Hoefer, Rytina, and Baker, “Estimates of the Unauthorized Immigrant Population Residing in the United States: January 2011.” The population of unlawful immigrants was relatively stable in this period; DHS estimates that the number of such immigrants in 2010 was 11.6 million.
 Ibid. Table 2 and its accompanying text state that the foreign-born population in the U.S. in January 2011 was 33.6 million. Of these, 1.65 million were not reported in the Census American Community Survey, leaving 31.95 million foreign-born persons who arrived after 1980 appearing in the survey. The estimated number of legal foreign-born residents was determined to be 22.1 million, of which 21.6 million appeared in the survey and 0.5 million were assumed to be outside the survey. The 31.95 million foreign-born persons in the ACS survey minus the 21.6 legal foreign-born persons in the survey left 10.35 million unlawful foreign-born persons in the ACS survey.
 Table 2 shows that there were an estimated 11.5 million unlawful immigrants in the U.S. in January 2011. Of these, 1,150,000 were an undercount, meaning that they did not appear in the Census American Community Survey. The remaining 10.35 million unlawful immigrants were recorded in the ACS.
 The primary analysis in this paper uses the March 2011 Current Population Survey. The data in this survey cover the prior 12 months; thus, they mainly represent conditions in 2010. Throughout the report, the March 2011 CPS data are referred to as 2010 data.
 U.S. Office of Management and Budget, Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2006: Analytical Perspectives, p. 301.
 U.S. Census Bureau, Federal State and Local Governments: 1992 Government Finance and Employment Classification Manual, sections 3.31 and 7.24.
 National Research Council, The New Americans, p. 308.
 If the CPS underreports benefits by 15 percent, the underreporting would be corrected by multiplying the CPS total by the inverse of 100 percent minus 15 percent (the inverse of 85 percent).
 Data on attendance in public primary and secondary schools were taken from the October 2010 CPS.