Its because Darth Vader knows the power of the Dark Side! Sheer unbridled power, that promises abilities so godlike that one can bring order to chaos and reshape the Galaxy and overcome death itself - certainly abilities that cannot be learned from a Jedi.
Anakin Skywalker was in the thrall to the Jedi counsel and the Jedi philosophies and restrictions. He was born a slave on Tatooine, and finally figured out that the Jedi did not save him from slavery, but just changed up his jailors. He was a puppet, a pawn - a good one perhaps, but always kept down. They wouldn't even make him a Master of their weak little cult.
Had Anakin had the strength of will to break his bonds to the Jedi earlier, what could he have been? He could have saved Padme, and from there -- from there, who knows.
But Anakin was weak. Weak Weak Weak. Darth Vader is no longer weak - he is sustained by his hatred of Anakin. His pain, his frustration, his loss, his eternal imprisonment in this black metal shell is due to Anakin being a weak willed pawn of the Jedi.
So he hates Anakin Skywalker for being weak, and hates the Jedi for making Anakin weak.