Its not really ‟duct” tape. It is a brand of tape developed at the University of Alberta (my father was on that team) in the 80's. The sticky substances on the underside of the tape will adhere to a limited variety of materials, but when it does adhere it provides tremendous strength. This lets you handle it and apply it without accidentally attaching it to your own skin. There are really no substances that can safely remove once it has been applied. I stress 'safely' because, well, there are substances that can remove it, but they involve vigorous chemical reactions that will probably damage whatever it's you're working on.
Once adhered, it provides about 6 orders of magnitude more (1,000,000 times more) ‟stickiness” than conventional duct tape. The threads used to weave the backing include some titanium alloys, and typical pieces of tape (like what you see in the picture, but maybe a tad thicker) provide tens of thousands of pounds of tensile strength. I believe that what you see in the picture is a relatively new application (use on concrete). It was originally used as an emergency duct tape by NASA for repairing cracked/chipped materials needed for high-temperature/force/velocity application. You lay out the tape where it needs to be, then apply a heat pad (pretty much a mini-iron that reaches 600 celsius) for about 30 seconds.
I guess its cheaper these days, because that road repair right there would have cost $15k 20 years ago.