I guess I'd call the whole area The Holy Land, but that term is very centered in the fact that I'm raised Christian in a Christian nation and culture so I dunno what a more general term for it is. I just call Israel Israel and Palestine Palestine.
It's not just the homeland of the Jewish people, though. Pretty sure that's part of the story of the bible is the Jewish tribes coming and kicking out the uh... shit I forgot. Lots of people have always been fighting to be there. Actually there's fossils coming up in Israel that show that there were even different hominid species fighting to exist and even interbreeding there. That's some cool Israeli science you should check out if you haven't heard of it already--cutting edge stuff.
Being against illegal settlement of Palestinian lands by Jewish settlers, and being against the inter-tribal hate of homo-sapiens in a theocratic nation, is not being against Jewish people as a whole. There's plenty of Jewish people in Canada; more than half of my romantic partners were of Jewish family and got to travel to Israel and see their homeland paid for, all of which is awesome.
Not even saying Israel shouldn't exist, but you can't just say all criticism of the modern political entity which is an arm of western powers in an oil-rich part of the world, is anti-semetic. It is a multi-faceted issue.