You're 17. I was in your position a few years ago. You might feel helpless but you have options. Right now, though, you need to pretend. Put your pride aside and pretend to be a Muslim for a year or two.
Continue looking for jobs. If you're going to college, spend a lot of time applying for scholarships, grants, whatever. Talk to friends about rooming with them. See if you can live in a dorm.
Tell your father you've "had a change of heart" and you're going to take Islam(your "deen" for cool points) seriously. Ask him if he can get you a prayer rug. Just pretend to do salat 5 times a day. I had to do it, it made everything easier for me.
Plenty of us have been in your spot before. I know you want to tell them the truth but nothing good is going to come of that. You know what they are like. They won't take it well. So just focus on financial stability for yourself and don't tell them you're an apostate. It keeps your mother happy and your father oblivious. They can't say much when you're out.