### The Universe is Contacting, not expanding.

Nope. It is just a simple recognition that we are part of the Universe and if the Universe contracts so do we. When the Universe contracts, every vector in the Universe gets smaller. When we get smaller, we get faster, which means it takes more time, as measured by us, for light to get to us.

When a clock is moved from being stationary at location R0 in a valley to a location R0 + h on a mountain top, a force is applied to the clock over a distance, which performs work on the clock and increases its energy. Accordingly, the force applied to the clock while moving it from a stationary location in a valley to a second stationary location on a mountain top must increase the Energy of the clock by an amount ∫F(clock)(R) dot dR as measured by an observer in the valley.2,3 The energy applied to the clock by the person carrying it is equivalent to the increase in the energy of the clock, which equals (E0(R0)gh/c2) for the weak gravity field of the earth. Since the clock was originally stationary in the valley and since it is also stationary on the mountain, all of the increased in energy (E0gh/c2) goes into the rest energy of the clock (see equation 5).2,3,7 In general, any force applied in line with the gravity field only increases the object’s rest energy and any force applied perpendicular to the gravity field only increases the object’s momentum energy.

The rest mass of an object is the rest energy that the object would have if it was located in a hypothetical location outside the gravity field. Rest mass is invariant when the object is measured from different observation frames. The rest mass is the value of rest energy at a hypothetical co-moving location where g00 = -1.2,3 Rest mass is given by the following equation mo = E0(loc) = ER0(R)/ √(g00(R))

When a photon is emitted from an object (object 1) at a location R0 of a gravity well and the released photon is detected/absorbed at a location R + h higher in the gravity well by a second object (object 2), the photon will be measured to have had a wavelength λ(R + h) that is greater than the wavelength λ(R), by the observer at location R + h. The photon did not increase the energy of object 2, as measured at location R + h, by as much energy as the photon decreased the energy of object 1 as measured by the change in energy of object 1 at location Ro. Accordingly, the observer at location Ro + h observes the photon as having a red shift of -gh/c2 (see equations 9-16).2,3,4

However, photons never change their inherent nature or their actual size regardless of where they are in the gravity well because no force can act on them. You can’t apply a force to a photon. Since you can’t change an object without applying a force to it, the inherent nature of the photon cannot be changed without absorbing the photon.2,3 Accordingly, “the phenomenon called the red shift of a photon is actually the blue shift of an atom”.2 The apparent red shift of the photon is caused by the observer at location 2 being physically smaller than the observer at location 1, which is caused by the observer at location 2 having greater energy than the observer at location 1.2,3,4

Imagine identical clocks (Clock 1 and Clock 2) and two identical observers (observer 1 and observer 2) in a valley. Observer 1 wearing Clock 1 takes an elevator to the top of the mountain and then gets off and then sits there. Clock 1’s rest energy becomes greater than Clock 2’s rest energy by an amount Wec1 equal to ∫F(clock 1)(R) dot dR when it is moved up the mountain by the distance h to location Ro + h, in the Earth’s gravity field. We know that all of the energy applied to Clock 1 went into its rest energy, even though it was applied kinetically, because clock 1 is at rest with respect to both observers before and after being carried to the top of the mountain. This increase in rest Energy applies to all elements of the clock including its electrons and nucleons.2,3,4

The Bohr radius describes the radius of an atom such that the radius is inversely proportional to the mass (energy) of the electron.4 Since the applied force was in line with the electron’s rest energy, all of the energy went into increasing the electron’s rest energy and none went into increasing the electron’s velocity. Accordingly, the radius of the atom decreased by an amount proportional to the increase in rest energy.

The postulates of relativity requires that an observer cannot tell that he is free falling in a gravity well by observing himself. If the characteristics of your atoms changed in a way observable to you, then you would violate a postulate of General Relativity. Accordingly, all measurable nuclear properties of Clock 1, as measured by observer 1, must vary in lock step with the variance of clock 1’s rest energy, rate of time, change in size and with the atom radius, as the clock 1 moves from location R0 to location R0 + h. If the observable nuclear properties, such as nuclear radii or reaction rates, did not vary in lock step with the photon wavelength and the rate of time, then observer 1 could tell he was moving in a gravity well simply by observing the properties of her atoms.

Gluons are the gauge bosons that transmit the strong nuclear force.6,7 They decay with time and thus provide a range limit for the nuclear force that determines the radius of the nucleus.6,7 The decay rate of gluons arises from the uncertainty relation, where there is uncertainty in the ability to confine momentum and position simultaneously. Accordingly, the decay rate of Gluons is inversely proportional to the Gluon rest energy, which means that the nuclear radii are inversely proportional to rest energy and that the nuclear radii will follow the same equations for change in radius as the electron radius of the atom. Thus the nuclear radii will vary in exactly the same manner as the atomic radii when Clock 1 is moved to the top of the mountain, as observed by observer 2 in the valley. This inverse size/radius relation holds for all particles in the nucleus.

Since the force was applied in line with the gravity field, all of the energy went into the rest energy and the particle velocities for the clock components have not changed for either observer. Since the velocities of light and the velocities of the sub-atomic particles have not changed and since the radius of the atom and of the nucleus and of the particles all decreased , the amount of time for an interaction to occur has decreased by the same factor as the radius which is the same factor by which the energy increased which is the change in √g00.

All interactions will occur faster for Clock 1 than for Clock 2 as observed by observer 2 and as observed by observer 1. The change in this rate of interactions (rate of time) for Clock 1 will be exactly the change in the √g00 factor that determines the change in rest energy, since the lengths associated with clock 1 all changed inversely to the change in Clock 1’s rest energy. Observer 1 will observe that Clock 2 has increased in volume, gotten lighter, and gotten slower. Likewise, Observer 2 will observe that Clock 1 has decreased in volume, gotten heavier, and gotten faster.

If we were able to change the metric tenser element g00(mountain top) to the magnitude g00(valley), all of the internal/rest energy that we added to Clock 1 when we moved it up the mountain would translate into momentum/kinetic energy and cause the clock to acquire a relative velocity away from us and to have a greater space difference from us. This effect is exactly what happens to all massive objects in the Universe when the universe contracts and increases the overall mass density of the Universe. Accordingly, the contracting universe causes all massive particles to acquire real relative velocity away from each other and to become farther apart, which explains our observations of the Universe without the need for Dark energy. We normalize our measurements of the universe based upon our own contraction so that perceive the universe to be expanding.

However, the Universe started out at a diffuse slow moving state and its contraction increases the kinetic energy and the distance of the objects in the Universe. This makes all objects in the universe get smaller and faster with time because the contracting Universe increases the rest mass for each object and thereby lowers the g00 metric tensor element for each object in the universe. The increased g00 element causes all objects in the universe to acquire distance and velocity away from the observer just as predicted for a contracting Universe.