If you're unable to access the adventures for minotaur farming (step 3), I found that it's relatively quick (10-20 minutes) to do this:
Drop down from spawn in Exodus Black, then head down and right into the cave (where the shanks idle near the entrance). After you go a bit deeper into the cave, you'll see a Vex teleporter, a Minotaur, and a handful of Goblins. This mob can be farmed.
Make sure you wipe everything out, then go into the teleporter and keep going down the cave passage until it dips down a bit and you see the zone switch to "Chamber Of Sky". At this point, do a 180 and head back out through the teleporter back to Exodus Black. The mob should've respawned at this point.
Using Telesto or Edge Transit or Bad Omens (= an AoE void weapon), you should be able to clear most of the mob with a single shot coming out of the teleporter, at which point you can turn around, run back down the hallway, and repeat.
The one caveat is that you have to kill all the enemies. If you just kill the minotaur and then go zone switch and come back, the rest of the mob will still be there with no minotaur.