I hang out with a few Central Asians, and they seem to be more Russified and/or influenced by Islamic/Middle Eastern culture. Mongolians on the other hand are what I'd consider far North Asians. Despite having shared cultural and spiritual beliefs with Central Asians, they aren't Muslim and Russian influence is not as strong. Also from my experience, they function as a direct cultural link to indigenous natives of North America (look up Mongolian Shamans). Mongolian beliefs lean towards Tengriism mixed in with Tibetan Buddhism.
I find depending on the admixture of the individual, Central Asians may or may not identify as Asian. I've met some Central Asians who will flat out deny being Asian as well when in a western country and feel more comfortable in a Russian speaking environment.