There's native american tribes out there that abruptly got gambling money. The kids under the age of 16 suddenly showed drops in mental illness and addiction rates, but not those older. The kids born into this now wealthy society are just now showing better money management skills (a decade or so later, because the money has become more routine, and the kids say they are learning from the mistakes of the kids that went before them). The adults over the age of 16 when the money came in don't show lowered addiction rates, but lower mental illness.
So is the culture of the kids different? Yes, because they have less stressed parents and a more certain economic future that they can spend more time planning for. Same people though. Is it the "culture" that the adults were raised in as kids the reason they have such difficulty changing? I would think so, I'd think if you were born and raised in that environment, you'll have a lifelong deficit of habits to fight against.
The culture is being raised with nothing and little certainty to see that things can get better. Can we see why an immigrant family who has some assets and is moving to a land of "opportunity" different?
We can say that the people within the american poverty group should be born with a different psychology and outlook on life than what statistics show happens in every ethnic group when they are born in a ghetto-type community. But why should they be different? Because a larger percentage of their ethnic group was born into marginal circumstances than other ethnic groups?
We say the children who are born into this culture are to blame for adopting this culture, and then somehow absolve ourselves as a community. But our community establishes a culture where we don't provide a stable life for a child born into poverty (something we could do, but believe it's immoral because.... bootstraps).
So who is responsible for change? Elsewhere in the world the community is the one who believes they must provide stability and opportunity for children born into poverty. Here we believe that children are responsible, and must find within themselves the psychological fortitude to resist the circumstances they were born into. It's the fault of their culture that they don't see opportunity and pursue it, not of our own where we damn well know it's more of an uphill battle for them than it is for someone with money.